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### Teaching Manual

Unit: Force, Std VIII, Duration 3 period

Pedagogical (Social ) Issue :
the front seat passengers of a car must wear seat belt compulsory

Concepts and facts:
Inertia of Rest, Inertia of Motion, Newton’s first law of motion, mass and inertia….

Values and Attitudes:
Scientific attitude, obeying the law…

Materials required:
Coins, paper, card, match box, glass slab, toy car, rubber band, pencil, etc

Activity 1
The issue is present before the students,
Do you agree with the statement “the front seat passengers of a car must wear seat belt compulsory” Why?
The students write the answers of the issue individually,
Group is formed; group names are of the names of the scientists who had given contribution in motion and force like, Galileo, Newton, Kepler….
After the group discussion, each group presents their opinion
There may be different opinion….the opinion of the teacher is not specified now…

Activity 2.
Various activities and tasks are given to each group to perform and find the solution, like
*A card is placed on glass, and a coin is placed above the card, what happens when the card moved speedily?
*Coins are placed one over the other, then can you remove the bottom coin only in any way? How and why?
*A coin is placed in side the back side of the match box at one end. Can you move the coin from one side to other, with out touching the coin? How and why?
*AB is the line marked on the table, a coin is rolling from A to be through the line, and can you stop the coin exactly at B? Why?
*The discussions about, the fan rotates again after switching off-why? The runner cannot stop exactly at the finishing point-why?.....

The performance and solutions are checked, and analyze the answers,
From this the conclusion- laziness of the coin or inertia and types of inertia are generated from the ideas of the students….. From here the Newton’s first law of motion also formed…..
The teacher never told the concept directly…discuss other examples of inertia

Activity 3
Paper- glass slab experiment,
Place a paper on the table and place a glass slab vertically on it. Then,
Move the paper suddenly,
Slowly increase the speed of the paper and suddenly stop
Students observe and complete the worksheet 1 group wise,

Worksheet 1
When the paper moved suddenly, in which direction the glass slab fell?
In this time which portion of the glass slab is moved?
When the paper stopped suddenly, in which direction the glass slab fell
In this time which portion of the glass slab is came to rest?

Discussion about the worksheet and activity and the concepts strengthened.
Work sheet 2 is given in groups

Worksheet 2
What happened to the passenger standing in a bus, when a moving bus stops suddenly? Why?
What happened to the passenger in a bus, when the stopped bus takes forward suddenly? Why?
What happened to the passenger, when he suddenly jumps from a running bus? Why?
What happened to the passenger, when he suddenly jumps in to the running bus? Why?
Group Discussion and concluding the idea.

Activity 4
Toy car experiment
A coin is place over a toy car and allowed to run, when it hit on the surface observe the motion of the coin,
Now tight the coin with the help of a rubber band and repeat the experiment observe again.
The difference in it discusses and reaches to the conclusion – seat belt,
Need of the seat belt, front seat and back seat, factors related to seat belt etc are discusses here
Various facts about the mass and inertia are also discussed.
The extension of this study is arranging a study or seminar about road safety and traffic rules etc.