How can you take a photo of earth from 9.66 kilo meters away ?!!!

How Earth looks like from a distance 9.66 million kilo meters?

This image of Earth (on the left) and the moon (on the right) was taken by NASA's Juno spacecraft on Aug. 26, 2011, when the spacecraft was about 6 million miles (9.66 million kilometers) away. It was taken by the spacecraft's onboard camera, JunoCam. The solar-powered Juno spacecraft lifted off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida on Aug. 5 to begin a five-year journey to Jupiter. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

On its way to the biggest planet in the solar system -- Jupiter, NASA's Juno spacecraft took time to capture its home planet and its natural satellite -- the moon.

The image was taken by the spacecraft's camera, JunoCam, on Aug. 26 when the spacecraft was about 6 million miles (9.66 million kilometers) away. The image was taken as part of the mission team's checkout of the Juno spacecraft. The team is conducting its initial detailed checks on the spacecraft's instruments and subsystems after its launch on Aug. 5.

Juno covered the distance from Earth to the moon (about 250,000 miles or 402,000 kilometers) in less than one day's time. It will take the spacecraft another five years and 1,740 million miles (2,800 million kilometers) to complete the journey to Jupiter. The spacecraft will orbit the planet's poles 33 times and use its eight science instruments to probe beneath the gas giant's obscuring cloud cover to learn more about its origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere, and look for a potential solid planetary core.

The solar-powered Juno spacecraft lifted off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida at 9:25 a.m. PDT (12:25 p.m. EDT) on Aug. 5 to begin its five-year journey to Jupiter.

Does this photograph illustrate a special perspective of our role and place in the universe ? Do we see a humbling yet beautiful view of ourselves ?

Neptune completes" one year" after it's discovery!

Neptune completes" one year" after it's discovery!

Neptune ,which was discovered on September 24,1846, completes one Neptunian year.If you lived on Neptune ,a year would amount to 164.79 years on Earth.

How Neptune discovered ?

Neptune was the first planet found by mathematical prediction rather than by empirical observation. Unexpected changes in the orbit of Uranus led astronomers to deduce that its orbit was subject to gravitational perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was subsequently found within a degree of its predicted position, and its largest moon, Triton, was discovered shortly thereafter, though none of the planet’s remaining 12 moons were located telescopically until the 20th century.

Two scientists ,Urbain JJ Leverrier and John Couch Adams independently worked on mathematical calculations to locate the position of the unknown body[Neptune].Neptune was finally sighted by Johann Galle at the Berlin Observatory on a tip-off from Leverrier .
Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. Named for theRoman god of the sea, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter and the third-largest by mass.

Why Neptune Blue in colour?
Neptune is similar in composition to Uranus, and both have compositions which differ from those of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. Neptune’s atmosphere, while similar to Jupiter’s and Saturn’s in that it is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of hydrocarbons and possibly nitrogen, contains a higher proportion of “ices” such as water, ammonia and methane. Astronomers sometimes categorize Uranus and Neptune as “ice giants” in order to emphasize these distinctions. The interior of Neptune, like that of Uranus, is primarily composed of ices and rock. Traces of methane in the outermost regions in part account for the planet’s blue appearance.

Why Voyager 2, is so significant ?
Neptune has been visited by only one spacecraft, Voyager 2, which flew by the planet on August 25, 1989.At the time of the 1989 Voyager 2 flyby, for example, the planet’s southern hemisphere possessed a Great Dark Spot comparable to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. These weather patterns are driven by the strongest sustained winds of any planet in the Solar System, with recorded wind speeds as high as 2,100 kilometres per hour (1,300 mph). Because of its great distance from the Sun, Neptune’s outer atmosphere is one of the coldest places in the Solar System, with temperatures at its cloud tops approaching −218 °C (55 K). Temperatures at the planet’s centre, however, are approximately 7,000 K (7,000 °C), comparable to those at the Sun’s surface and similar to temperatures at the centres of most of the other planets of the Solar System. Neptune has a faint and fragmented ring system, which may have been detected during the 1960s but was only indisputably confirmed in 1982 byVoyager 2.

If our Earth is at the position of Neptune in solar system ,what will be The seasons and Weather in Earth? How we -human- calculate our age?

Planet Made of Diamond

Planet Made of Diamonds-Gem of a discovery

once-massive star that's been transformed into a small planet made of diamond: that's what astronomers think they've found in our Milky Way.
The pulsar at the centre of the image is orbited by an object that is about the mass of Jupiter and composed primarily of carbon; effectively a massive diamond. The orbit, represented by the dashed line, would easily fit inside our Sun, represented by the yellow surface. The blue lines represent the radio signal from the pulsar, which spins around 175 times every second.

What is a pulsar?

Pulsars are small spinning stars about 20 km in diameter -- the size of a small city -- that emit a beam of radio waves. As the star spins and the radio beam sweeps repeatedly over Earth, radio telescopes detect a regular pattern of radio pulses.

For the newly discovered pulsar, known as PSR J1719-1438, the astronomers noticed that the arrival times of the pulses were systematically modulated. They concluded that this was due to the gravitational pull of a small companion planet, orbiting the pulsar in a binary system.

The pulsar and its planet are part of the Milky Way's plane of stars and lie 4,000 light-years away in the constellation of Serpens (the Snake)..

The modulations in the radio pulses tell astronomers several things about the planet.

First, it orbits the pulsar in just two hours and ten minutes, and the distance between the two objects is 600,000 km -- a little less than the radius of our Sun.

Second, the companion must be small, less than 60,000 km (that's about five times Earth's diameter). The planet is so close to the pulsar that, if it were any bigger, it would be ripped apart by the pulsar's gravity.

But despite its small size, the planet has slightly more mass than Jupiter.

Pulsar J1719-1438 is a very fast-spinning pulsar -- what's called a millisecond pulsar. Amazingly, it rotates more than 10,000 times per minute, has a mass of about 1.4 times that of our Sun but is only 20 km in diameter. About 70 per cent of millisecond pulsars have companions of some kind. Astronomers think it is the companion that, in its star form, transforms an old, dead pulsar into a millisecond pulsar by transferring matter and spinning it up to a very high speed. The result is a fast-spinning millisecond pulsar with a shrunken companion -- most often a so-called white dwarf.

Astronomers think that the 'diamond planet' is all that remains of a once-massive star, most of whose matter was siphoned off towards the pulsar.But pulsar J1719-1438 and its companion are so close together that the companion can only be a very stripped-down white dwarf, one that has lost its outer layers and over 99.9 per cent of its original mass.

This remnant is likely to be largely carbon and oxygen, because a star made of lighter elements like hydrogen and helium would be too big to fit the measured orbiting times,

The density means that this material is certain to be crystalline: that is, a large part of the star may be similar to a diamond.

Now think-off a diamond hunt in the outer space!!!!! Our future space mission may be, for a Diamond hunt !!!!!?????


Evidence of a Black Hole that swallow a Star!

Evidence of a Black Hole that swallow a Star!

Two studies appearing in the Aug. 25 issue of the journal Nature provide new insights into a cosmic accident that has been streaming X-rays toward Earth since late March. NASA's Swift satellite first alerted astronomers to intense and unusual high-energy flares from the new source in the constellation Draco.
incredibly, this source is still producing X-rays and may remain bright enough for Swift to observe into next year.
Astronomers soon realized the source, known as Swift J1644+57, was the result of a truly extraordinary event -- the awakening of a distant galaxy's dormant black hole as it
shredded and consumed a star. The galaxy is so far away, it took the light from the event approximately 3.9 billion years to reach Earth .
How we detect this extraordinary event?

Most galaxies, including our own, possess a central super-sized black hole weighing millions of times the sun's mass. According to the new studies, the black hole in the galaxy hosting Swift J1644+57 may be twice the mass of the four-million-solar-mass black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. As a star falls toward a black hole, it is ripped apart by intense tides. The gas is corralled into a disk that swirls
around the black hole and becomes rapidly heated to temperatures of millions of degrees.

The innermost gas in the disk spirals toward the black hole, where rapid motion and magnetism create dual, oppositely directed "funnels" through which some particles may escape. Jets driving matter at velocities greater than 90 percent the speed of light?!!! form along the black hole's spin axis. In the case of Swift J1644+57, one of these jets happened to point straight at Earth.

Now NASA satellite detects the radio emissions and X rays from this energy jet .

The event happened approximately 3.9 billion light years away from the Earth!!!,
Now we are seeing it , Then calculate when was the actual incident ? At that time what about our planet?

New Physics?

New physics?
The CERN research center, whose giant Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been the focus of the search, said it had reported to a conference in Mumbai that possible signs of the Higgs boson noted last month were now seen as less significant.
A number of scientists from the center went on to make comments that raised the possibility that the mystery particle Higgs boson might not exist??!!!!!!

What is boson?
In particle physics, bosons are subatomic particles that obey Bose–Einstein statistics. Several bosons can occupy the same quantum state. The word boson derives from the name of Satyendra Nath Bose.
What is Higgs boson?
The [God particle ]Higgs boson is a hypothetical massive elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. The existence of the particle is postulated to resolve inconsistencies in theoretical physics and attempts are being made to find the particle by experiment, using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the Tevatron at Fermilab.
Whatever the final verdict on Higgsboson, we are now living in very exciting times for all involved in the quest for new physics. if the Higgs boson did not exist -its absence will point the way to new physics.

Under what is known as the Standard Model of physics, the boson, which was named after British physicist Peter Higgs, is posited as having been the agent that gave mass and energy to matter just after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago.As a result, flying debris from that primeval explosion could come together as stars, planets and galaxies.

For some scientists, the Higgs remains the simplest explanation of how matter got mass. It remains unclear what could replace it as an explanation. We know something is missing, we simply don't quite know what this new something might be!!!!!

Higss boson may be a mirage?!Then......... All the possibility Of a new physics??!!!


Moon and Earth May Be Younger Than Originally Thought

The common estimate of the moon's age is as old as 4.5 billion years old (roughly the same age as the solar system) as
determined by mineralogy and chemical analysis of moon rocks gathered during the Apollo missions.But now analysing three isotopic systems, including the elements lead, samarium and neodymium found in ancient lunar rocks, and determined that the moon could be much younger than originally estimated. In fact, its age may be 4.36 billion years
old.The new research has implications for the age of Earth as well. The common belief is that the moon formed from a giant impact into Earth and then solidified from Magma.
This is in stark contrast to a planet like Mars, which is argued to have formed around 4.53 billion years ago. If the age we report is from one of the first formed lunar rocks, then the moon is about 165 million years younger than Mars and about 200 million years younger than large asteroids."

The isotopic measurements were made by taking samples of ferroan anorthosite (FAN), a type of moon crustal rock,

which is considered to represent the oldest lunar crustal rock type.

ക്ലസ്റ്റര്‍ - ഹെല്‍പ് ഡെസ്ക്

AC or DC ?
ഇത്തവണത്തെ ക്ലസ്റ്ററിലെ ഒരു പരീക്ഷണത്തിന്റെ വീഡിയോ (ശ്രീ.ജെയിംസ് സാര്‍ തയ്യാറാക്കിയത്) ആണ് ഇവിടെ നല്‍കിയിരിക്കുന്നത്. പരീക്ഷണം ചെയ്യുന്നതിനുള്ള ഒരു മുന്നൊരുക്കത്തിന് ഇത് സഹായകരമാകുമെന്ന് കരുതുന്നു.

ശബ്ദം പഠിക്കാന്‍ ഒഡാസിറ്റി

ഇത്തവണത്തെ അധ്യാപക പരിശീലനപരിപാടിയില്‍ ICT പ്രയോഗത്തിന്റെ സെഷനുകള്‍ ഉള്‍പ്പെടുത്തിയിട്ടുണ്ട്.
എല്ലാ യൂണിറ്റ് റിസോഴ്സസും ഒരു ഫോള്‍ഡറില്‍ ശേഖരിച്ച് എളുപ്പത്തില്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കാന്‍ പറ്റുന്ന ഒരു ഐ.ടി.ടൂള്‍ സംവിധാനം പരിചയപ്പെടലാണ് ഇത്.

ഇതോടൊപ്പം പത്താം ക്ലാസിലെ ശബ്ദം എന്ന പാ​ഠഭാഗം കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്യാന്‍ Audacity എന്ന sound editing tool എങ്ങിനെ ഉപയോഗിക്കാം എന്നു നോക്കാം.
Audacity ജാലകം തുറക്കുക
Applications --> Sound & Video --> Audacity
ഇങ്ങനെ തുറന്നു വരുന്ന ജാലകത്തില്‍ ഒരു ശബ്ദ ഫയല്‍ Import ചെയ്യുകയോ ഏതെങ്കിലും ഒരു ശബ്ദ ഫയല്‍ Audacity ഉപയോഗിച്ച് തുറക്കുകയോ ചെയ്യുക.
File --> Open അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ File --> Import
എന്ന ക്രമത്തില്‍ ശബ്ദം/സംഗീതം ചേര്‍ക്കുക. (കുട്ടികളുടെ ശബ്ദം റെക്കോര്‍ഡ് ചെയ്തതായാലും മതി.)
ഇനി Menu bar ലെ Effect ല്‍ ഉള്ള ടൂളുകള്‍ ഉപയോഗിച്ച് ശബ്ദത്തില്‍ ക്രമീകരണങ്ങള്‍ വരുത്തുക.
ഉദാഹരണമായി Change pitchഎന്ന ടൂളില്‍ ആവൃത്തി( Frequency) വ്യത്യാസപ്പെടുത്തുമ്പോള്‍ ശബ്ദത്തിലുണ്ടാകുന്ന മാറ്റം നിരീക്ഷിക്കുക.
Amplify എന്ന ടൂള്‍ ഉപയോഗിച്ച് ശബ്ദതീവ്രത Decibel ക്രമത്തില്‍ മാറുന്നത് നിരീക്ഷിക്കാം.
Echo എന്ന ടൂള്‍ ഉപയോഗിച്ച് പ്രതിധ്വനി യുടെ സമയം നീട്ടാം.
മറ്റു ടൂളുകള്‍ സ്വയം പരീക്ഷിച്ചു നോക്കൂ......



ആഗസ്റ്റ് സെപ്റ്റംബര്‍ മാസങ്ങളില്‍ നടക്കുന്ന അധ്യാപകശാക്തീകരണത്തിനു മുന്നോടിയായി കഴിഞ്ഞ ദിവസങ്ങളില്‍ തൃശൂര്‍ ഡയറ്റില്‍ വച്ചു നടന്ന സംസ്ഥാനതല അധ്യാപകശാക്തീകരണ പരിപാടിയില്‍ നിന്നുള്ള ദൃശ്യങ്ങള്‍.......

ഹിരോഷിമ ദിനം.......

ഭീതിയുടെ ഓര്‍മ്മപ്പെടുത്തലുകള്‍ക്ക് വിട.....

ആത്മവിശ്വാസത്തിന്റെ സ്മരണപുതുക്കല്‍....

യൂണിറ്റ് ടെസ്റ്റ് സ്റ്റാന്‍ഡേര്‍ഡ് 10

1. ഒരു ഇരുമ്പുവള സ്വര്‍ണ്ണം പൂശണം. ഇതിനായി ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന വസ്തുക്കളുടെ പേരെഴുതുക. (4)
a. കാഥോഡ് -
b. ആനോഡ് -
c. ഇലക്ട്രോലൈറ്റ് -
d. ഇവിടെ AC വൈദ്യുതി ഉപയോഗിക്കാമോ? സാധൂകരിക്കുക?

2. ചിത്രത്തില്‍ A എന്ന കോയിലില്‍ 100 ചുറ്റുകളും B യില്‍ 300 ചുറ്റുകളും ഉണ്ട്. (6)
A യില്‍ 6V , 3A AC കറണ്ട് നല്‍കുന്നു. എങ്കില്‍

a. Bയിലെ വോള്‍ട്ടത എത്ര?

b. B യിലെ കറണ്ട് എത്ര?

c. ഇത് എത് തരം ട്രാന്‍സ് ഫോമറാണ്?
d. ട്രാന്‍സ് ഫോമറിന്റെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനതത്വം എന്ത്?

3. അനുയോജ്യമായി പൂരിപ്പിക്കുക. (3)
a.ഡിസ്ചാര്‍ജ് ലാമ്പില്‍ ഹൈഡ്രജന്‍‍‍‍‍ - നീല , നൈട്രജന്‍ - ..................
b. ഫിലമെന്റ് - ടങ്സ്റ്റണ്‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍, ഫ്യൂസ് വയര്‍ - ..................
c. റസിസ്റ്റിവിറ്റി - Wm , പവറ്‍ -...............


a. ചിത്രത്തില്‍തന്നിരിക്കുന്നത് എത് തരം ജനറേറ്ററാണ്? (4)

b. വൈദ്യുതിയുടെ ഗ്രാഫ് വരയ്ക്കുക‍?

c.ഇവിടെ ആര്‍മേച്ചര്‍കറക്കിയാലും ഫീല്‍ഡ്കാന്തം കറക്കിയാലും ഒരേരീതിയിലുള്ള വൈദ്യുതിയായിരിക്കുമോ ലഭിക്കുക?

d. ഇതിനെ മോട്ടോറായി ഉപയോഗിക്കാന്‍ പറ്റുമോ? ഉത്തരം സാധൂകരിക്കുക?


a. ചിത്രത്തില്‍ R ന്റെ പ്രതിരോധം എത്ര? (3)

b. പവര്‍ എത്ര?

c. പ്രതിരോധത്തിനുപകരം ഇന്റക്ടര്‍ഉപയോഗിച്ചാല്‍ വൈദ്യുതി ലാഭിക്കാമോ? സാധുകരിക്കുക.